Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano.
The post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau), constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan, has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.
The Krakatau edifice grew as one or more stratovolcanoes of dominantly hypersthene-augite andesite composition. The geology of Krakatau has been described by Effendi and others (1985, 1986), who identified five main evolutionary periods. Period 1 was an early growth phase that included accumulation of lavas and pyroclastics. Period 2 was marked by caldera formation, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and partly welded tuffs (ignimbrites). The cones of Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan grew during the third period and were largely destroyed during the fourth period, which included the paroxysmal eruption of August 1883. Another growth phase (period 5) began by December 1927, when Anak Krakatau was first noticed in submarine eruption. ...
Several years of regional seismicity culminated in the famous caldera-forming eruption of August 1883 (Verbeek, 1886; Judd, 1888). Earthquakes were felt in west Java and eastern Sumatra 5-6 years before the 1883 eruption, and in northern Australia in the 3 years before the eruption. On 1 September 1880, a strong earthquake damaged the First Point lighthouse on the west end of Java (70 kilometers south-southwest of Krakatau). more earthquakes were felt at First Point on 9-10 May 1883 and at Katimbang (40 kilometers north-northeast) during 15-20 May 1883. None of the above-mentioned earthquakes is known to have been of volcanic origin and centered beneath Krakatau; more likely, they reflect a buildup and release of tectonic stress in the sunda Strait area.
A mild ash and steam eruption began from Perbuwatan on 20 May 1883, and similar eruptions continued for 3 months. At times several vents were in eruption simultaneously. On 11 August, vigorous ash-laden gas columns rose from the main crater of Perbuwatan, the former vent of Danan, and from the foot of Danan; in addition, "no fewer than eleven other foci of eruption could be observed on the visible portions of the island, from which smaller steam-columns issued and ejections of ash took place" (Judd, 1888, p.13). At least some of the early ash was basaltic, suggesting that intrusion of basaltic melt into the silicic reservoir may have played a role in initiating these eruptions (Francis and Self, 1983). The small eruptions intensified on 24 August 1883 and culminated in the famous, climactic explosion of 27 August 1883 (Verbeek, 1886; Judd, 1888; Simkin and Fiske, 1983).
Earthquakes and rumbling, not demonstrably from Krakatau, were noted in 1898 (Koninklijk Magnetisch en Meteorologisch Observatorium te Batavia, 1899). On 13 August 1913, a strong tectonic earthquake occurred in the Bantam-Krakatau region, damaging the First Point lighthouse. Fishermen where were on the islands of Krakatau reported that part of the caldera wall collapsed. They also reported that at 1000 hours a "column of fire" rose out of the crater, whereupon they heard a cannonlike sound and fled (Visser, 1920). There are no independent reports of eruptions of Krakatau in 1913, and we suspect that only a landslide occurred.
Eruptions from December 1927 to 1981, mostly of basaltic andesite, built the Anak Krakatau ("child of Krakatau") cone in the center of the 1883 caldera ...
The August 1883 eruption of Krakatau is often cited as a classic example of caldera formation by collapse following eruption of large volumes of pumice (Williams, 1941; Williams and McBirney, 1979; Self and Rampino, 1981, 1982; Francis and Self, 1983). However, other workers have suggested alternate mechanisms for formation of the Krakatau Caldera. Yokoyama (1981, 1982) concluded that the caldera formed by explosive destruction and reaming of the preeruption edifice, and Camus and Vincent (1983) and Francis (1985) favored an origin by large-scale collapse of the northern part of Krakatau Island (similar to the volcanic landslide at Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980). Regrettable, much of the evidence is sumbmarine and inaccessible, but we are impressed by the similarity of Krakatau and other, better-exposed calderas (for example, Crater Lake) that are thought to have formed by simple collapse following voluminous pumice eruptions. The volume of magma erupted in the plinian eruption (9 cubic kilometers) is adequate to explain the caldera without invoking a landslide origin.
Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) is a scale that describes the size of an explosive volcanic eruption. VEI is analogous to the Richter magnitude scale for earthquakes. In the 0 to 8 scale of VEI, each interval represents an increase of a factor of ten. An eruption of VEI 4 is 10 times larger than a 3 and one hundred times larger than a 2. Key characteristics that define VEI include:
Volume of ash produced
Height of eruption cloud above the vent
Duration of eruption
Krakatau, Indonesia, 1883
VEI 6 (Very Large)
Bulk Volume of Erupted Products: 4 cubic miles
Ashfall thicknesses vary greatly within a single VEI category due to differences in eruption and wind conditions. Typically a VEI 6 will produce:
Eruption column height above vent: greater than 80,000 feet
Approximate ash thickness at 10 miles: 10 feet
Approximate ash thickness at 100 miles: 1 foot
Approximate ash thickness at 300 miles: 1 inch
Article above taken from Volcanology USGS Gov
Krakatau tour or krakatoa Volcano tours the journey will start from carita beach crossing sunda strait by speed boat double engine to the volcanic island of Krakatoa-Cracatoa-krakatau which about 45 miles a way and the journey will Takes about 1,5 hours on the way sail to Krakatau volcano possibility to see group of flying fish, Tuna, dolphin come to the surface and jump, for while the view of Sumatra and java island can be see as well, the fishing house nearby Carita beach and fisherman with traditional wooden boat make completely scene of Sunda strait, the Sunda strait is busy shipping land. the first destination is anak krakatau (child of Krakatau), sail around the anak Krakatau to see the kind of larva and the smoke can be seen come out from the VAN and from the sloven of Krakatau the new crater now is on the side toward to the west since November 2007, the boat will stop for view minutes to take time and give chance to get picture of smoking steam crater and the continuing journey to the land of Anak Krakatau volcano, landing at the Krakatau beach mostly clear water with soft and hot black sand, after take rest for a few minute continuing tracking, hiking and climb up to the top of Anak Krakatau, the normal tours to Krakatau climb up only to the first level (the first elevation) at about 180m from sea level, also possible to climb up to the second level (highest elevation) at about 300 m from sea level need authority permit. the journey will takes about 30-40 minutes to climbing first level of anak Krakatau and will takes about 90 minutes climbing Krakatau - Cracatoa Volcano to the highest elevation. the fabulous view from the elevation one of your proudly if you can reach the first elevation its also be our proudly to take you to the elevation of Krakatau volcano. from here we can see the view of outer Island of Krakatau and one of the best place to take a picture of Krakatau and other island around Krakatau (Sertung Island, Rakata Island, and panjang island) Sumatra and Java can be seen when the weather are clear. the hot volcanic sand and smoke steam come out from rock hole "Van" make the completely of your trip to krakatau volcano tours or Krakatoa tour, the next destination we will visit Rakata island (The Mother of krakatau) for skin dive / snorkeling at the Legon Cabe "chili bay" coral reef here we will try to see kind of colorful coral fishes after skin dive we will landing on the beach for lunch, swimming and sun bathing the beach at Rakata island mostly clear glassy and blue water here is last destination the tour completely and sail back to Carita beach end of tour. to make your experiences and adventure tours more impressing about Krakatau we suggest you to visit Anyer light house here you will see the ruin of old light house which destroyed by Tsunami of Krakatau and the new light house was built in 1885 2 year after Krakatau explosion.
The Krakatoa Volcano - Krakatau Volcano Indonesia this group of island consists of three islands and one volcano. These islands and volcano were formerly a single giant ancient Krakatoa - Krakatau volcano. It believed that the ancient volcano erupted at around 600 AD and tore apart in to 3 islands which now surrounded the current active volcano. Due to the volcanic activities, once again the southern part of he remain grew up and formed a new volcano, followed by the growth of other two volcano to its north and joined up together formed a 9 km of length and 3 km of width of fire island.
August 27, 1883 was recorded as the biggest eruption the volcano ever made. Killed more than 36.000 peoples, devastated the surrounding area with it's 30 -40 m high of tidal wave. The two volcanoes on the north plus half cone of the southern volcano were gone. The baby volcano it self just grew around 30 years the big bang. The smoking cone you now see is a grandchild of Krakatau, Anak Krakatau (the Baby of Krakatau), which first appeared in 1929 and has been growing yearly
Ample time to climb on moon like landscape Actual height of old Krakatoa - Krakatau 813 M. Actual height of anak ( child ) of Krakatau 194 M in 1987. and 300 m in 2006 which in 1927 emerged from the bottom of the sea. Trip depend on the demand and availability 10 hours or 6 hours on day trip. Also possible stay over night Camping at Krakatau Island. Boat available from Carita.1 up to 1,5 hours by speed boat 3 up to 4 hours by Slow wooden boat.
The Krakatoa - Krakatau Volcano Indonesia, The Big bang of KRAKATAU 1883 On Monday morning August 27th 1883 at 10.05. The Sound of Krakatoa - Krakatau explosion in 1883. It’s heard in Srilangka, India, Karachi, Australia ( Perth ), Madagascar Island, and reach 3000 miles a way to the Indian Ocean
Krakatau 1883 - Krakatoa 1883 Tossed 18-20 cubic kilometer Material of earth 30 Km high in to the atmosphere, the heavy material Back to the earth but the soft material and particles gas and ash rise up to the atmosphere and covering the atmosphere caused radiation of the sun back to the space. The hot wave of Volcanic gas and ash was circling and traveling around the globe 7 times for 4 days, Caused Blood Red color , Orange and Fantastic colored sun set, Blue Moon can be seen for 4 – 5 years (1883 – 1888).- Caused Disturbances of radio communication all round the globe for 3 day. The Krakatau Volcano - krakatoa volcano explosion has power more than 100.000 ton Atomic boom.
Kraktau Tsunami 1883
The Giant Tsunami of Krakatoa - Krakatu Volcano about 30 - 40 Meter High and the speed reach about 180-200 km/h. It was destroyer more than 270 villages around Java and Sumatra and more than 36.000 people die by tsunami and most the kids was killed by the Volcanic Gas. The Krakatau - Krakatoa tsunami Lifted the Steamer Boat BEROUW up the Kaoeripan River valley at Lampung bay depositing the ship over 3 miles inland and killing all 28 crew steamer ship, On Sunday August 27th 1883 at 10.05 am the sky was changed suddenly dark and the lighting blasted, rained by black sand, ash and dust. in the distance could be seen the thousands of flame rock flied tossed to the atmosphere from Krakatoa -Krakatau volcano, the local peoples said that was Dooms day “ KIAMAT” .the big stone as big as car was land on Carita beach, and many prisoners was killed by blasted lighting at Tanjung Layar Light house (Ujung kulon) and the light house was destroy as well. it was reported later and The Anyar Light house to navigated Shipping land at Sunda Strait was destroyed too but the light house keeper was secure and report on light house keeper log book.
The Effect of Krakatoa - Krakatau volcano hot wave, dust and ash into the Atmosphere
- Caused Blood red color, orange and fantastic colored sunset, blue moon can be seen for 4-5 years (1883-1885).
- Caused Disturbances of radio communication all around the globe for 3 day.
- The fabulous sunset can be seen in Australia, Paris, England, japan, Brazil and USA.
- Japan, Yoko hama August 29th 1883, "Blood Red with jet like smoke passing across it's face lasted 2 day
- In sarry has light pink cirras stripes at sunset September 26th 1883.
- Buenos Ayres february 24th 1884, the glow was begin they lasted 1,5 hours the sun and the moon occasionally colored.
- Somerset, Mass U.S (S.S.R) beautiful colored sunset at last of September 1883.
- Rio de janeiro Last of September 1883 very strong glows as never before seen.
- Chelsea, west London, the sky seriously changing at the sunset between September 1883 - 1886.
Reborn of Anak krakatau (Child of Krakatoa Volcano)
Forty years after the main explosion, in the beginning of 1927, volcanic activity was seen in the sea covering the old caldera, between the sites of the two northern most former volcanoes of Krakatau, where the greatest activity had occurred at the time of the cataclysm. A series of eruptions 185 m below the surface of the sea resulted in the emergence of tree new island, one after the other. They were all soon destroyed by surf. A fourth emerged from the sea on August 12th 1930. It remained above water, and was aptly named Anak Krakatau ( Child of Krakatau ). its grew by the accumulation of ash, and suffered a devastating eruption in 1952, and another very destructive one in 1972. It is now 300 m high and 2 km in diameter, and is still active. The northeast coast, north forel and and east fore land are now vegetated; the succession of vegetation is still at an early stage, over 200 species of higher plants Casuarina Equisetifolia (Cemara ) being the dominant trees and 36 kinds species of birds was recorded at 1980.
The three outer islands of the present Krakatau volcano group (Rakata, Sertung and Panjang) are though to be the remnants of one previous huge volcanic island called "Ancient Krakatau" . it was 11.000 m in diameter and 2000 m high, according to records in the Javanes BOOK OF KING it exploded and collapsed, perhaps in prehistoric times but possibly as recently as 416 AD.
Type and Typical of Krakatau (Krakatoa) volcano Sunda Strait Indonsia
Name : Krakatoa Volcano - Krakatau Volcano
Location : Sunda Strait, between Java and Sumatra, Indonesia
Summit elevation : 813 M (2.667 ft), Anak Krakatau 300 M
Volcano type : Caldera
Last eruption of Krakatau : 1530, 1680, 1684, 1883 (Plinian eruption), 1927-30 (reborn of anak Krakatau), 1931-32, 1932-34, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1946-47, 1949, 1950, 1952, 1953, 1955, 1958-59, 1959-63, 1965, 1969, 1972-73, 1975, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1988, 1992-93, 1994-95, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, Oct 2007 - March 2008, 24th March 2009 till October 2009, Now October 2010... !,
Krakatau typical eruption : Explosive, Contruction of chinder cone island (Anak Krakatau) inside caldera formed by the Krakatau 1883 eruption. frequently strombolian activities.
Krakatoa tour - Krakatau tour the new up date information about Krakatau volcano:
The Krakatoa Volcano - krakatau volcano are active with explosion and tossed the hard material
since 24th March 2009 till to October 2009, Now.. October 2010 Krakatau volcano Active... its would be nice to see the night explosion in the night with Krakatoa-Krakatau Volcano tour stay over night trip.
Krakatau Volcano Island - Krakatoa Volcano Island (Anak Gunung Krakatau) Administration:
In 1976 North Gunung Honje is Part of Ujung Kulon by Decision Letter of Ministrer of Agriculture No.39/kpts Um/1979, covering area of 9,498 ha, by Decision Letter of Ministri of Forestry No.96/kpts/II/1984,the area consisting of: Ujung Kulon Peninsula, Gunung Honje, Peucang and Panaitan Island, Krakarau Volcano Island - Krakatoa Volcano (Anak Gunung Krakatau) and Carita Receration Park.
In 1990 based on Decision Latter of Director General Forest Protection and Nature Conservation o.44/kpts/DJ/1990 on 8 May 1990, Ujung Kulon National Park relasing Krakatau Volcano Island to Management of Nature Conversation II Tanjung Karang, and Carita Recreation Park to Perum Perhutani Unit III West Java.
In 1992 Ujung Kulon National Park and Krakatau Volcano-Krakatoa Volcano Island Nature Reserve declared as World Heritage Site By United Nation Education, Social and Culture Organization (UNESCO) With the decree No.SC/Eco/5867.2.409, on 1992.
|West Java Tour Destinations
West Java Activities and Excurtions
□ Bogor Botanical Garden
□ Kampung Naga
□ Gunung Gede
□ Pangrangau Natioinal Park
□ Mount Halimun
□ Mount Tangkuban Perahu
□ Museum Asia Afrika
□ Taman Safari
□ Mount Krakatau
□ Ujung Kulun
□ Badui Village
□ Alun Alun
□ Traditonal Market
□ Surfing at Cimaja Pelabuhan Ratu
□ Becak Riding
□ Village sightseeing